Our Facilities

Clinical Biochemistry
Haematology-CBC&PBF
Clinical Pathology
Microbiology Culture And Sensitivity-Urine,Blood,Pus ,etc
Malaria, Dengue, Hepatitis And HIV Testing
TB And Fungus Test
All Serology And Immunology Test
Endocrine Test-Thyriod, Fertility profile,Anaemia Profile And Other Hormone Test

Hematology, Serology, Clinical Biochemistry, Clinical Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Histopathology & Cytology. For all our test we use the best Infrastructure and equipments procured from some of the leading companies across the globe.

AFB (Acid Fast Bacilli) Smear Test
AFB smear test is done if you have symptoms, such as a chronic cough, weight loss, fever, chills, and weakness that may be due to tuberculosis.

AFP (Alpha Feto Protein)
AFP is a protein produced by fetal tissue (especially the liver) and by tumors. Increased amounts of AFP are found in vast majority of patients with a type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma. They are also found in some patients with cancer of the testes and ovaries.

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
Alkaline phosphatase is principally measured to evaluate diseases of liver or bone. ALP levels vary with age and pregnancy. ALP is elevated in growing children, decrease to an adult level, and then increase slightly in older people. During pregnancy ALP values elevate to two times normal level, rise to three times the normal level during labor and return to normal in three to four weeks.

AMH
AMH is a glycoprotein dimer that performs various physiological functions. AMH production by the Sertoli cells of the testes remains high throughout childhood in males but declines to low levels during puberty and adult life. AMH has been shown to regulate production of sex hormones and changing AMH levels (falling in females, rising in males) may be involved in the onset of puberty in both sexes. AMH measurements have also become widely used in the evaluation of testicular presence and function in infants with intersex conditions, ambiguous genitalia, and cryptorchidism (absence of one or both testes from the scrotum).

Amylase
Amylase is present in a number of organs and tissues, the greatest concentration being in the pancreas. In acute pancreatitis, amylase increases 5-6 hours after the onset of symptoms and remains elevated for 2-5 days.

Anti CCP
Anti-CCP is primarily ordered along with an RF test when a patient has previously undiagnosed inflammatory arthritis or has been diagnosed with undifferentiated arthritis. It may be ordered as a follow-up test to a negative RF test when clinical signs, such as symmetrical joint pain and inflammation, lead the doctor to suspect RA.

Anti Thyroid Antibody
This test includes detection of Thyroglobulin antibody (Anti Tg) and Microsomal or peroxidase antibody (Anti TPO). Thyroid antibody testing is primarily ordered to help diagnose an autoimmune thyroid disease and to separate it from other forms of thyroiditis. It may be ordered to help investigate the cause of a goitre and/or performed as a follow-up when other thyroid test results (such as FT3, FT4, and/or TSH) show signs of thyroid dysfunction.

Antinuclear Antibody (ANA)
This test is used to help diagnose systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE) and drug-induced lupus, but may also be positive in a number of other diseases.

Ascitic Fluid Analysis
Ascitic/Peritoneal fluid is a liquid that acts as a lubricant in the abdominal cavity. It is found in small quantities between the layers of the peritoneum. A variety of conditions and diseases can cause inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis) and/or excessive accumulation of peritoneal fluid (peritoneal effusion or ascites).

ASO (Anti Streptolysin ‘O’) Test
The ASO test is primarily ordered to help determine whether a patient has had a recent streptococcal infection. In cases where they do not cause identifiable symptoms and/or go untreated, however, post-streptococcal sequelae, namely rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis, can develop in some patients, especially young children. The test, therefore, is done if a patient presents with symptoms suggesting either of these conditions.

Bilirubin (Total, Direct & Indirect)
Bilirubin test is conducted to assess liver disorders, most commonly in case of jaundice.

Bleeding Time (BT)/Clotting Time (CT)
The BT test helps identify people who have defects in their platelet function. This is the ability of blood to clot following a wound or trauma. Clotting time is used to assess deficiency of coagulation factors; however it is not very sensitive unless the levels are very low; thus CT has become an obsolete test. The BT and CT tests are sometimes performed as a preoperative test to determine a patient’s likely bleeding response during and after surgery.

Blood Culture & Sensitivity
Blood culture test is conducted when you have signs or symptoms of a bacterial infection, such as fever, chills, elevated white blood cell count, and fatigue, which also may be a sign of infection occurring in other parts of the body, such as a urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, diarrhea, or skin infection.

Blood Grouping (ABO Rh)
Blood group test is conducted to assess one’s type of group i.e. either A, B, AB or O (which can be either positive or negative). Blood group is a prerequisite for any surgical procedures, blood donation, blood transfusions, pregnancy etc.

Blood Sugar (Glucose) Test
This test is done to determine the level of sugar in the blood. It is advisable to do this test fasting (8-10 hrs) and then post meal (exactly 2 hrs after completion of meal). High blood sugar indicates that you are a diabetic.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)/Urea
BUN is useful in evaluation of renal disease, and nutritional status. Urea synthesis is dependant on daily protein intake and protein metabolism. BUN and Creatinine tests are normally done together for differential diagnosis of kidney function.

CA 19-9
CA 19-9 is not sensitive or specific enough to be considered useful as a tool for cancer screening. Its main use is as a tumor marker: to help differentiate between cancer of the pancreas and bile ducts and other non-cancerous conditions, such as pancreatitis; to monitor a patient’s response to pancreatic cancer treatment; and to watch for pancreatic cancer recurrence. CA 19-9 can only be used as a marker if the cancer is producing elevated amounts of it; if CA 19-9 is not initially elevated, then it usually cannot be used later as a marker.

CA-125
This test helps to monitor treatment for ovarian cancer, before starting therapy for ovarian cancer or if at high risk for developing ovarian cancer, and at intervals during and after treatment. CA-125 levels may also be high in other types of non-cancerous conditions, including menstruation, pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Calcium
Measurement of calcium is used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of bone diseases, parathyroid disease and chronic renal (kidney) disease. Low calcium causes intermittent muscular contractions and spasms, whereas, high calcium muscle weakness along with other complex symptoms.

CCP-Ab (Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody)
CCP test along with an RF test helps in the diagnoses of inflammatory arthritis. It may be ordered as a follow-up test to a negative RF test when clinical signs, such as symmetrical joint pain and inflammation, lead the doctor to suspect RA.

CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen)
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein that is found in embryonic tissues. By the time a baby is born, detectable levels in the blood disappear. In adults, CEA is normally present at very low levels in blood. When the concentration of CEA is elevated, it may indicate that a cancer is present. However, an increase in CEA may also be due to benign conditions.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis may be used to help diagnose a wide variety of diseases and conditions affecting the central nervous system (CNS). They may be divided into four main categories: Infectious diseases such as meningitis and encephalitis-testing is used to determine if the cause is bacterial, tuberculous, fungal or viral, and to distinguish it from other conditions; may also be used to detect infections of or near the spinal cord or to investigate a fever of unknown origin. Bleeding (hemorrhaging) within the brain or skull. Diseases that cause inflammation or other immune responses. Tumors located within the CNS (primary) or metastatic cancer.

Chikungunya IgM
This test is used for the detection of chikungunya disease which is caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmitted to humans by virus-carrying Aedes mosquitoes. The incubation period of Chikungunya disease is from two to four days. Symptoms of the disease include a fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), a petechial or maculopapular rash of the trunk and occasionally the limbs, and arthralgia or arthritis affecting multiple joints. Other nonspecific symptoms can include headache, conjunctival infection, and slight photophobia. Typically, the fever lasts for two days and then ends abruptly. However, other symptoms, namely joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration last for a variable period; usually for about 5 to 7 days. Patients have complained of joint pains for much longer time periods depending on their age.

Chloride
Chloride is an electrolyte that is significantly involved in maintenance of water distribution and osmotic pressure. Surplus chloride is excreted in the urine and is also lost in the sweat.

Cholesterol
Cholesterol is an important risk factor for development of heart disease. The higher the cholesterol level the greater the risk for developing heart disease, and lowering high cholesterol levels reduces the risk.

Complete Hemogram
The CBC is used as a broad screening test to check for disorders as anemia, infection, and many other diseases. It is actually a panel of tests that examines different parts of the blood and includes the following:
Hemoglobin (Hb)
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
Platelet Count
Hematocrit (HCT)/Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
Absolute eosinophil cont ( AEC)
Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC)
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC)
Absolute monocyte count
Absolute basophil count
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Complete Blood Count
Hemoglobin White Blood Cell Count Red Blood Cell Count Differential Count Platelet Count

Conjunctival Smear
Smear collected with the help of a sterile cotton swab from the conjunctiva is used to assess any bacterial infection prior to cataract surgery.

Cortisol
The hormone is secreted in a daily pattern, rising in the early morning, peaking around 8 am, and declining in the evening. This pattern, which is sometimes called the “diurnal variation” or “circadian rhythm,” changes if you work irregular shifts (such as the night shift) and sleep at different times of the day. This test is therefore performed between 8 to 10 am and again between 4 to 6 pm. Inadequate amounts of cortisol can cause nonspecific symptoms such as weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood pressure, and abdominal pain. Sometimes decreased production combined with a stress can cause an adrenal crisis that requires immediate medical attention.

Cocaine (Benzoylecgonine)
Cocaine is a nervous system stimulant that can be addictive. Cocaine may appear in urine for only few hours after use, whereas the benzoylecgonine, a hydrolytic degradation product of cocaine, may be detectable in urine over 2 days after taking cocaine. Therefore the detection of bezoylecgonine in human urine is widely used to evaluate cocaine usage.

Complete Blood Count/CBC
The CBC is used as a broad screening test to check for disorders as anemia, infection, and many other diseases. It is actually a panel of tests that examines different parts of the blood and includes the following:
Hemoglobin (Hb)
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
Platelet Count
Hematocrit (HCT)/Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
Conjunctival Smear
Smear collected with the help of a sterile cotton swab from the conjunctiva is used to assess any bacterial infection prior to cataract surgery.

Cortisol
The hormone is secreted in a daily pattern, rising in the early morning, peaking around 8 am, and declining in the evening. This pattern, which is sometimes called the “diurnal variation” or “circadian rhythm,” changes if you work irregular shifts (such as the night shift) and sleep at different times of the day. This test is therefore performed between 8 to 10 am and again between 4 to 6 pm. Inadequate amounts of cortisol can cause nonspecific symptoms such as weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood pressure, and abdominal pain. Sometimes decreased production combined with a stress can cause an adrenal crisis that requires immediate medical attention.

C-Peptide
CMV IgM and IgG antibody testing may be used to help diagnose primary CMV infection in young adults, pregnant women, and some immune-compromised patients with flu- or mononucleosis-like symptoms. By comparing the absence or presence of both IgG and IgM in the same sample, the doctor can distinguish between primary, latent, and reactivated CMV in symptomatic patients.

CPK Total & CK-MB
Measurement of CPK is useful in the diagnosis of suspected myocardial infarction (damage to heart muscles) and is a very sensitive indicator of skeletal muscle damage. Both CPK total and CK-MB activity rises in myocardial damage. A CK-MB fraction more than 6% of the total CPK activity is regarded as diagnostic for myocardial infarction. A fraction of less than 6% indicates skeletal muscle damage.

Creatinine
Creatinine production is proportional to muscle mass and varies little from day to day. Measurement of creatinine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of renal (kidney) disease and in monitoring renal dialysis.

CRP (C-Reactive Protein)
CRP measurement is useful in non-specific screening for inflammatory and infectious disorders. It may increase dramatically in inflammatory conditions.

Dengue IgG/IgM
Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans by Stegomyia aegypti (formerly Aedes aegypti) mosquitoes and cause a wide range of symptoms, from unapparent or mild disease (dengue fever) to a severe hemorrhagic form (dengue hemorrhagic fever) Detection of Dengue IgM antibodies helps in the diagnosis of acute dengue infection which is caused by a mosquito bite; however these antibodies can be detected only after 5 days of onset of fever.

Dengue NS-1 Antigen
This test helps in rapid and early detection of dengue disease beginning as NS1 antigen is seen circulating from day one of onset of fever till day 9.

DHEAS (Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate)
DHEAS is a male sex hormone that is present in the blood of both men and women. Adrenal tumors, cancers, and hyperplasia can lead to the overproduction of DHEAS. While elevated levels may not be noticed in adult men, they can lead to amenorrhea and visible symptoms of virilization. These changes vary in severity and may include:
a deeper voice
hirsutism
male pattern baldness
muscularity
acne
enlargement of the Adam’s apple

Electrolytes
Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that are found in body tissues and blood in the form of dissolved salts. They help move nutrients into and wastes out of the body’s cells, maintain a healthy water balance, and help stabilize the body’s pH level. The electrolyte panel measures the main electrolytes in the body: sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-).

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
The ESR is an easy, inexpensive, nonspecific test that has been used for many years to help diagnose conditions associated with inflammation, including infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

Estradiol/Estrogen (E2)
Measurement of estrogen levels is essential in case of a woman who has unexplained abnormal menstrual cycles, abnormal or heavy bleeding, infertility, symptoms of menopause, or any other hormonal alterations; also used to test for fetal-placental status during early stages of pregnancy; the presence of female-like characteristics in males may require estrogen measurement as well.
Estriol (E3)
This test provides an objective assessment of placental function and fetal normality in high-risk pregnancies. Estriol is the major estrogen in the pregnant female.

Ferritin
The ferritin test is done to see how much iron your body has stored for future use. The test is done, usually with an Iron studies test, to learn about iron levels in your blood. Ferritin is the best test for iron deficiency and a very good test for iron overload.

FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
FSH is often used in conjunction with other tests (LH, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) in the workup of infertility in both men and women. FSH levels are used to help determine the reason a man has a low sperm count. FSH levels are also useful in the investigation of menstrual irregularities and to aid in the diagnosis of pituitary disorders or diseases involving the ovaries or testes. In children, FSH and LH are used to diagnose delayed or precocious (early) puberty.

Free PSA
Free PSA to Total PSA ratio helps in differentiating prostate cancer from benign hypertrophy.

Free Testosterone & Bioavailable Testosterone
Bioavailable testosterone (BAT) refers to the sum of free testosterone plus albumin-bound testosterone. Alternatively, it is the fraction of circulating testosterone that is not bound to SHBG. It is suggested that BAT represents the fraction of circulating testosterone that readily enters cells and better reflects the bioactivity of testosterone than does the simple measurement of serum total testosterone.

Free T3/FT3 (Free Triiodothyronine)
A FT3 test helps to determine whether the thyroid is functioning properly. It is ordered primarily to help diagnose hyperthyroidism and may be ordered to help monitor the progress of a patient with a known thyroid disorder.

Free T4/FT4 (Free Thyroxine)
FT4 helps evaluate thyroid gland function; also to help diagnose hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and to screen for hypothyroidism in newborn.

G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase)
The goal of G6PD activity testing is to detect a G6PD deficiency and to determine its potential severity. G6PD activity testing may be done on children who had persistent jaundice as a newborn that was not due to another identified cause.

GGT (Gamma Glutamyl Transferase)
Estimation of GGT is most often used to differentiate the source of an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, e.g., liver or bone; GGT is not present in bone. Another common use is in the evaluation of alcohol abuse.

Glycosylated Hb (HbA1c)
Estimation of glycosylated Hb reflects the mean glucose and control level of the previous 2 to 3 months. HbA1c measurement determines whether the patient’s diabetes is well controlled; this monitoring will allow assessment of therapeutic efficacy.

Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT/GTC)
A glucose tolerance test is the administration of glucose to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood. The test is usually used to test for diabetes, insulin resistance, and sometimes reactive hypoglycemia.

Grams Stain
To identify the presence of bacteria in a patient’s specimen from the infected site so that appropriate treatment can be given.

HAV IgM (Hepatitis ‘A’ Virus IgM Antibody)
IgM antibodies to HAV are used in a patient with evidence of acute hepatitis, such as jaundice, dark urine, pale colored stools, fever, and loss of appetite.

HBsAg (Hepatitis ‘B’ Surface Antigen)
In a patient with acute hepatitis, HBsAg is usually ordered to detect recent infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In persons with chronic hepatitis, or with elevated SGOT or SGPT, HBsAg is usually done to see if the liver damage is due to HBV.

HCV Antibodies (Hepatitis ‘C’ Virus Antibodies)
This test is done to determine if you have contracted the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to monitor treatment of the infection.

HCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin)
HCG testing is routinely used to confirm pregnancy. Quantitative (reported as a specific number) HCG testing (also frequently called beta HCG), measures the actual amount of HCG present in the blood. It may be used to help diagnose an ectopic pregnancy, to help diagnose and monitor a pregnancy that may be failing, and or to monitor a woman after a miscarriage.

HDL Cholesterol
HDL cholesterol is known as “good” cholesterol because a high HDL level seems to protect against heart attack. The opposite is also true: a low HDL level (less than 40 mg/dL in men; less than 50 mg/dL in women) indicates a greater risk. A low HDL cholesterol level also may raise stroke risk. Reduced HDL cholesterol levels can be due to smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, increased triglycerides or due to genetic factors.

Hemoglobin (Hb)
The Hb test is an integral part of your health evaluation, it is used to: measure the severity of anemia (too few red blood cells) or polycythemia (too many red blood cells). monitor the response to treatment of anemia or polycythemias, and help make decisions about blood transfusions if the anemia is severe.

HEV IgM (Hepatitis ‘E’ Virus IgM Antibody)
IgM antibodies to HEV are used in a patient with evidence of acute hepatitis, such as jaundice, dark urine, pale colored stools, fever, and loss of appetite.

High Sensitive CRP (Hs-CRP)
Hs-CRP is most often used to help predict a healthy person’s risk of cardiovascular disease. People who have Hs-CRP results in the high end of the reference range have 1.5 to 4 times the risk of having a heart attack as those with Hs-CRP values at the low end of the reference range.

HSV 1+2 IgG/IgM
Antibodies to HSV are specific proteins that the body creates and releases into the bloodstream to fight the infection. HSV IgM antibody production begins several days after a primary (initial) HSV infection and may be detectable in the blood for several weeks. HSV IgG antibody production begins after HSV IgM production. Concentrations rise for several weeks, fall, and then stabilize in the blood. Once someone has been infected with HSV, they will continue to produce small quantities of HSV IgG.

IGE
IGE antibody test is done to screen for an allergy to a specific substance or substances when a patient presents with acute or chronic allergy-like symptoms. The IGE antibody test may also be done when the patient has significant dermatitis or eczema (also a sign of allergies), is taking necessary histamines or anti-depressants.

Insulin
Estimation of insulin helps to evaluate insulin production, diagnose an insulinoma (insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell tumor), and to help determine the cause of hypoglycemia.

Ionized Calcium
The ionized calcium test measures only the free, metabolically active form of calcium. Ionized calcium should be conducted on critically ill patients who are receiving blood transfusions or intravenous fluids, patients undergoing major surgery, and patients with blood protein abnormalities like low albumin. Large fluctuations in ionized calcium can cause the heart to slow down or to beat too rapidly, can cause muscles to go into spasm (tetany), and can cause confusion or even coma. In those who are critically ill, it can be extremely important to monitor the ionized calcium level in order to be able to treat and prevent serious complications.

Iron Studies
Iron status is evaluated by the following tests that are done under iron studies:
Serum iron – measures the level of iron in the liquid part of your blood.

Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)

measures the amount of iron that can be carried through blood by transferrin. Transferrin is the protein that transports iron from the gut to the cells that use it. Your body makes transferrin in relationship to your need for iron; when iron stores are low, transferrin levels increase and vice versa. In healthy people, about one-third of the binding sites on transferrin are used to transport iron. This number is called the transferrin saturation.

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
LDH is often used as a marker of tissue breakdown. As LDH is abundant in red blood cells it can function as a marker for hemolysis. It can also be used as a marker of myocardial infarction. Following a myocardial infarction, levels of LDH peak at 3-4 days and remain elevated for up to 10 days. In this way, elevated levels of LDH can be useful for determining if a patient has had a myocardial infarction if they come to doctors several days after an episode of chest pain.

LDL Cholesterol
Low-density lipoprotein is the major cholesterol carrier in the blood. If too much LDL cholesterol circulates in the blood, it can slowly build up in the walls of the arteries feeding the heart and brain. A high level of LDL cholesterol (160 mg/dL and above) reflects an increased risk of heart disease. If you have heart disease, your LDL cholesterol should be less than 100 mg/dL. That’s why LDL cholesterol is called “bad” cholesterol. Lower levels of LDL cholesterol reflect a lower risk of heart disease.

LH (Luteinizing hormone)
LH is often used in conjunction with other tests (FSH, testosterone, estradiol and progesterone) in the workup of infertility in both men and women. LH levels are also useful in the investigation of menstrual irregularities and to aid in the diagnosis of pituitary disorders or diseases involving the ovaries or testes.
Lipid Profile
Cholesterol
Triglycerides
HDL-Cholesterol
LDL-Cholesterol
VLDL-Cholesterol
Chol/HDL-chol Ratio
LDL-chol/HDL-chol Ratio
Triglyceride/HDL- chol Ratio

Magnesium
Magnesium is a mineral that is vital for energy production, muscle contraction, nerve function, and the maintenance of strong bones. Magnesium testing may be ordered as a follow up to chronically low levels of calcium and potassium. It also may be ordered when a person has symptoms that may be due to a magnesium deficiency, such as muscle weakness, twitching, cramping, confusion, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures.

Malaria Antigen Test (MP Ag)
MP Ag test is a rapid test for detection of live parasites in blood. A repeat test becomes negative generally within 2-4 days following the beginning of successful treatment. This test is suitable to verify the effectiveness of therapy, underlying possible resistant strains of Plasmodium spps.

Malarial Parasite (MP) SMEAR
MP test is done to rule out malarial infection (Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum)

Microalbumin
The microalbumin test is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, that put them at an increased risk of developing kidney disease. Identifying the very early stages of kidney disease (microalbuminuria) helps people and doctors adjust treatment. With better control of diabetes and hypertension by maintaining tight glycemic control and reducing blood pressure, the progression of kidney disease can be slowed or prevented.
Microalbuminuria (Micral)
Although not detected by routine urine test, diabetic patients may be passing albumin in urine for months or years, before it reaches a level that can be detected by conventional methods. Therefore detecting microalbuminuria at an early stage means saving the kidneys from irreversible damage, which can be caused due to uncontrolled diabetes. A first morning urine sample before exercise or walk is essential for micral test.

17-OH Progesterone
17-Hydroxyprogesterone is a natural progestogen, and in pregnancy increases in the third trimester primarily due to fetal adrenal production. Levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone builds up in patients with suspected congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In contrast, the rare patient with 17a-hydroxylase deficiency will have very low or undetectable levels of 17OHP.

Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
The PTT test is used along with the PT (Prothrombin Time) test when someone has unexplained bleeding or clotting. It is often used with recurrent miscarriages that often are associated with anticardiolipin and phospholipid antibodies. The PTT and PT tests are also sometimes used as pre-surgical screens.

Phosphorus
The serum phosphorus test measures the amount of phosphate in your blood. Phosphorus testing is very important in people who are malnourished or who are being treated for ketoacidosis. Testing also can help to diagnose disorders that affect the kidneys.

Platelet Count
A platelet count is often requested as a standard part of a complete blood count, when a patient has unexplained bruises or takes what appears to be an unusually long time to stop bleeding from a small cut or wound. Bleeding disorders or other bone marrow diseases, such as leukemia, require the determination of the number of platelets present and/or their ability to function correctly.

Pleural Fluid
Pleural fluid analysis is used to help diagnose the cause of inflammation of the pleura (pleuritis) and/or accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (pleural effusion). There are two main reasons for fluid accumulation, and an initial set of tests (albumin, cell count and appearance of the fluid) is used to differentiate between the two types of fluid that may be produced i.e. transudates or exudates.

Potassium (K+)
This test is done to determine whether your potassium concentration is within normal limits and to help evaluate an electrolyte imbalance; to monitor chronic or acute hyperkalemia (high potassium) or hypokalemia (low potassium).

Progesterone
Since progesterone levels vary predictably throughout the menstrual cycle, multiple (serial) measurements can be used to help recognize and manage some causes of infertility. Progesterone can be measured to determine whether or not a woman has ovulated, to determine when ovulation occurred, and to monitor the success of induced ovulation.

Prolactin
Prolactin test is conducted when you have symptoms of elevated prolactin, such as galactorrhea (milk production not during pregnancy) and/or visual disturbances and headaches; as part of a workup for female and male infertility; for follow-up of low testosterone in men.

Prothrombin Time (PT/INR)
A PT test is to check how well blood-thinning medications (anti-coagulants) are working to prevent blood clots; to help detect and diagnose a bleeding disorder.

PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)
PSA test helps to screen asymptomatic and symptomatic men for prostate cancer, to help determine the necessity for a biopsy of the prostate, to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for prostate cancer, and to detect recurrence of prostate cancer.

Reticulocyte Count
To help evaluate the bone marrow’s ability to produce red blood cells (RBCs) and to help distinguish between anemias related to blood loss or destruction and anemia related to decreased RBC production.

Rheumatoid Factor (RF/RA) Test
The rheumatoid factor (RF) test is primarily used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to distinguish it from other forms of arthritis and other conditions that cause similar symptoms of joint pain, inflammation, and stiffness.

Rubella IgG/IgM
This test measures the presence of rubella antibodies in the blood. There are two types of rubella antibodies: IgM and IgG. The first type to appear in the blood after exposure is the IgM rubella antibody. The level of this protein in the blood rises and peaks within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks, except in an infected newborn, where it may be detected for several months to a year. The IgG rubella antibody takes a bit longer to appear than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for life, providing protection against re-infection. The presence of IgM rubella antibodies in the blood can indicate a recent infection while the presence of IgG antibodies may indicate a recent or past rubella infection or that a rubella vaccine (a measles, mumps, rubella vaccine) has been given and is providing adequate protection.

Semen Analysis
A semen analysis is used to determine whether a man might be infertile-unable to get a woman pregnant. The semen analysis has many parts and tests a lot of aspects of the semen and sperm.
A man should abstain from ejaculating for three to four days before the sample is collected for testing. Sperms are very temperature-sensitive; If collection is done at home, the sample should be kept at room temperature (22-24°C) at all times and submitted to the lab within 10 minutes. Never refrigerate the sample.

SGOT/AST (Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase)
Testing for SGOT is usually used to detect liver damage and heart or muscle injury. It is used to evaluate a patient who seems to have symptoms of a liver disorder. Some of these symptoms include jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin), dark urine, nausea, vomiting, abdominal swelling, unusual weight gain, and abdominal pain.

SGPT/ALT (Serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase)
SGPT test is used to evaluate a patient who has symptoms of a liver disorder. Some of these symptoms include jaundice, dark urine, nausea, vomiting, abdominal swelling, unusual weight gain, and abdominal pain. SGPT is often used to monitor the treatment of persons who have liver disease or persons who take drugs that might occasionally damage the liver, to see if the treatment is working.

Sodium (Na+)
This test is done to determine whether your sodium concentration is within normal limits and to help evaluate electrolyte balance and kidney function; to monitor chronic or acute hyper- or hyponatremia (high or low sodium levels).
Stool Routine Test
Routine examination of stool is carried out in case of diarrhea, dysentery and parasitic infections.
Occult Blood Test (OBT)- done as a part if routine stool examination is used to screen for gastrointestinal bleeding, which may be an indicator of colon cancer. A secondary use of OBT is to look for a cause of anemia, such as might be caused by a bleeding ulcer. It is also tested in symptoms of anemia, such as fatigue or a low hemoglobin and hematocrit, and/or bloody or dark stools.

Synovial Fluid
Synovial fluid is a viscous liquid that acts as a lubricant for the major joints of the body. Synovial fluid analysis consists of a group of tests that detect changes in synovial fluid that may indicate the presence of diseases that affect joint structure and function.

Testosterone
If testosterone level is abnormal, it may help to explain difficulty getting an erection (erectile dysfunction), inability of your partner to get pregnant (infertility), or premature or delayed puberty if you are male, or the appearance of masculine physical features if you are female.

Thyroglobulin
The thyroglobulin test is primarily used as a tumor marker to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for thyroid cancer and to monitor for recurrence and to help determine the cause of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

TORCH Panel
TORCH is an acronym for a group of infectious diseases that can cause illness in pregnant women and may cause birth defects in their newborns. The test is a screen for the presence of any of the antibodies to these infections. The following tests make up the TORCH panel: Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus.

Total Proteins
Total protein measurements can reflect nutritional status, such as when you have undergone a recent weight loss, kidney disease, liver disease, and many other conditions. It is reported along with the calculated ratio of albumin to globulins, termed the A/G ratio.

Toxoplasma IgG/IgM
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection which is acquired by ingesting the parasite when handling the excrement of infected cats, drinking unpasteurized goat’s milk, and, most commonly, by eating contaminated meat. It can also be passed from mother to baby through the placenta during pregnancy. Presence of IgG antibodies is suggestive of past infection and IgM antibodies are indicative of current infection.

Triglycerides
Blood tests for triglycerides are usually part of a lipid profile used to identify the risk of developing heart disease. If you are diabetic, it is especially important to have triglycerides measured as part of any lipid testing since triglycerides increase significantly when blood sugar is out of control.

Triple Marker First Trimester
The first trimester screen is a combination of two blood tests such as PAPP and free HCG and a special ultrasound that are used to screen pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Each test measures a different factor that is altered in a fetus that has chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome or trisomy 18.

Triple Marker Second Trimester
The triple screen is a group of three tests that are used to screen pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Unconjugated estriol (uE3)
Results of each of these tests are considered together to determine the risk that the fetus has a chromosomal defect or an open neural tube defect.

Troponin I
The troponin test is used to help diagnose a heart attack, to detect and evaluate mild to severe heart injury, and to distinguish chest pain that may be due to other causes. In patients who experience heart-related chest pain, discomfort, or other symptoms and do not seek medical attention for a day or more, the troponin test will still be positive if the symptoms are due to heart damage.

TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)
TSH estimation is used to screen for and help diagnose thyroid disorders; to monitor treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Uric Acid
This test is done to detect high levels of uric acid, which could be a sign of the condition gout, to monitor uric acid levels when undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment or impaired kidney function that results in decreased ability to excrete uric acid.

Urine Culture & Sensitivity
A urine culture may be ordered when symptoms indicate the possibility of a urinary tract infection, such as pain and burning when urinating and frequent urge to urinate. Antibiotic therapy is prescribed based on the sensitivity report.

Urine Pregnancy Test (UPT)
UPT is a qualitative urine test which detects pregnancy and should be done after 48-72 hours of missed periods.

Urine Routine Test
Urine test is normally done during a routine check up or when you have symptoms of a urinary tract infection, such as abdominal pain, back pain, frequent or painful urination, or blood in the urine; as part of a pregnancy checkup, a hospital admission, or a pre-surgical work-up.

VDRL
The test is used to diagnose infection with syphilis in sexually active persons. Pregnant women also are screened to prevent the spread to the fetus.

Vitamin B12/Cobalamin
Vitamin B12 estimation helps diagnose the cause of anemia or neuropathy (nerve damage), to evaluate nutritional status in some patients, to monitor effectiveness of treatment for B12 or folate deficiency.

Vitamin D
25-hydroxyvitamin D is used to determine if bone weakness, bone malformation, or abnormal metabolism of calcium occurring as a result of a deficiency or excess of vitamin D. Low blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D may mean that you are not getting enough exposure to sunlight or enough dietary vitamin D to meet your body’s demand or that there is a problem with its absorption from the intestines. High levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D usually reflect excess supplementation from vitamin pills or other nutritional supplements.

White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
The WBC count is used to suggest the presence of an infection or leukemia. It is also used to help monitor the body’s response to various treatments and to monitor bone marrow function.

Widal
Widal test is done to rule out typhoid, ideally after 6 days of fever. A blood culture test may be done in case of a negative finding for confirmation.